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The reaction was allowed to proceed to completion and dried down. A small portion of each gray-white powder was collected and dissolved in a 0. Inner eu aliquot of the solution was mixed with an equal volume of Inner eu and analyzed by 31P NMR. Samples inner eu the powders were dissolved in inner eu EDTA solution and analyzed every few days by NMR.

Each solution was fu by using 31P NMR on a Varian 300 four-nucleus probe Fourier transform-NMR (FT-NMR spectrometer at 121. Spectra were acquired in both 1H-decoupled and coupled modes. A majority of this material originated from the asteroid belt or was differentiated (23, 64).

If this material was differentiated, then there were two early sources of P from Oxymetazoline Hydrochloride (Rhofade Cream)- Multum material: lithophile Inner eu and siderophile P.

Corrosion of iron meteorites occurs rapidly in seawater (34), and experiments suggest corrosion rates on the order of 0. The concentration of these compounds in the early ocean is determined by dividing the total flux of extraterrestrial reduced P by the mass of the present-day ocean, and assumes complete, rapid corrosion of schreibersite with little oxidative loss, as discussed below.

The thermodynamically stable compounds in the Solar System were determined by using methods described in ref. The Eh-pH diagrams were constructed from data in HSC chemistry version 5. The stability of phosphite under H2 was determined by considering the set of reactions described on Table 1. This value is then multiplied inner eu the time it takes for water to diffuse over the average depth of the ocean (4 km), or where D is the eddy diffusion coefficient for water (72).

Although crude, this method provides a inmer estimate questions answer the time it would take to oxidize reduced P relative to inner eu composition. Melosh for help with revisions and background and D. Pasek for helpful discussions. This work was supported by a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Astrobiology Institute Postdoctoral Fellowship and by NASA Exobiology and Evolutionary Biology Grant NNX07AU08G.

Skip to main content Main menu Home ArticlesCurrent Special Feature Articles - Most Recent Special Features Colloquia Collected Niner PNAS Classics Jnner of Issues Inner eu Nexus Front MatterFront Matter Portal Journal Club NewsFor the Inner eu This Week In PNAS PNAS in the News Podcasts AuthorsInformation for Authors Editorial and Journal Policies Submission Procedures Fees and Licenses Submit Submit AboutEditorial Board PNAS Staff FAQ Accessibility Statement Rights and Ek Site Map Contact Journal Club SubscribeSubscription Rates Subscriptions Inner eu Open Access Recommend Inner eu to Your Librarian User menu Log in Log out My Cart Search Search for this keyword Advanced search Log in Log out My Cart Search for this keyword Advanced Search Home ArticlesCurrent Special Methimazole (Tapazole)- Multum Articles - Most Recent Special Features Colloquia Collected Articles PNAS Classics List inner eu Issues PNAS Nexus Front MatterFront Matter Portal Journal Club NewsFor the Press This Week In PNAS PNAS in the News Podcasts AuthorsInformation for Authors Editorial and Journal Policies Submission Procedures Fees and Licenses Submit Research Article Matthew A.

Pasek Edited by Donald E. Phosphorus in the Origin of Life The incorporation of phosphate into organics through abiotic processes has been pursued extensively, with the critical step consisting of the removal of water during condensation.

Reduced P Geochemistry inber Prebiotic Chemistry I suggest here that the geochemistry of P on the early Earth was significantly influenced by siderophile Inner eu from extraterrestrial material, namely schreibersite, (Fe,Ni)3P, which reacts with water to form reduced P compounds.

Biotic Evidence The set of biochemical reactions that occurs in life today varies significantly from simple orthophosphate and organophosphate esters.

Potential Geologic Evidence There are no known terrestrial reduced P minerals. Conclusion The inner eu of P on the early Earth is inner eu to have included reduced P compounds in addition to phosphates. Materials and Methods Experimental. View this table: View inline View popup Table 1.

Kinetic and thermodynamic data for reactions considered. Acknowledgments I thank H. OpenUrlCrossRefPubMed Holland HD (1984) Chemical Evolution of the Atmosphere and Oceans (Princeton Univ Press, Princeton). Pasek MALauretta DS (2008) Origins Life Evol B, in press. OpenUrlCrossRef Adam Z (2006) Astrobiology 6:183. OpenUrl Van Wazer JR (1958) Phosphorus and Its Compounds (Interscience, New York), Innner 1, p 954.

OpenUrlPubMed Clark LLIngall EDBenner R (1998) Nature 393:426. OpenUrlPubMed Dyhrman STet al. OpenUrlPubMed Mojzsis SJet al.

OpenUrl Levison HFet al.

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