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S83213Ali Yousaf,1 Prednisolone 30 Abd Hamid,1 Noraslinda M Bunnori,1 AA Ishola2 1Kulliyyah of Science, 2Kulliyyah of Medicine, International Islamic Cipro mg Prednisolone 30, Bandar Indera Mahkota, Malaysia Abstract: Research on the therapeutic applications of calixarene derivatives is an emerging area of interest.

Due to their superior geometric shape, calixarenes can accommodate drug molecules by forming inclusion complexes. Controlled release of anticancer drugs by calixarenes might help in targeted chemotherapy. This review summarizes the anticancer potential of the calixarenes and their drug loading properties. The potential use of calixarenes in chemoradiotherapy is also highlighted in brief.

Keywords: cancer, chemotherapy, calixarenesChemotherapy occupies a pivotal position in the treatment of cancer, and its significance in terms of cure and regression of various types of cancer should not be underestimated. As a result, healthy tissues, such as bone marrow, the gastrointestinal mucosa, hair follicles, and skin are directly affected by a prednisolone 30 regimen, even with preliminary why we do need friends. These side effects lead to various complications during and after treatment.

However, all available and upcoming anticancer drugs face the same problem of non-selectivity. Therefore, from the last three decades, new trends have been developed for targeted chemotherapy, ie, introduction of nanotechnology, use of cancer biomarkers, and exploration of physical parameters (eg, pH, temperature, light) in the treatment of cancer. Prednisolone 30 the synthetic macromolecules, crown ether, cyclodextrin, and calixarenes and their derivatives are of great significance.

In addition to their unique physicochemical properties, they also serve as hosts that can encapsulate many types of guests.

Calixarene is prednisolone 30 cyclic oligomer that can be synthesized by the reaction of phenol with formaldehyde in the presence prednisolone 30 a catalytic amount of a strong base prednisolone 30 acid. The flexible nature of the basic moiety and further modification of their basic prednisolone 30 and rims make these cyclic oligomers ideal for use as drugs and sports medicine and rehabilitation journal carriers.

The anticancer activity of calixarene-based compounds has prednisolone 30 investigated by several research groups. When compared with a chemotherapeutic agent, carboplatin, the newly synthesized compound showed better activity against non-small cell lung cancer, hepatocellular cancer, and breast cancer. Prednisolone 30 using colorimetric cytotoxicity tests, its median inhibitory concentration (IC50) prednisolone 30 a lung cancer cell line was found to be 2.

To date, the US clinical trials database shows only one Phase I study of OTX008, a calixarene-based compound and galectin-1 inhibitor with potential antiangiogenic and antineoplastic activity. The study has been ongoing since 2012, with no results reported prednisolone 30 yet. Enzyme inhibition is a common mode of action for some chemotherapeutic drugs. Several calixarenes derivatives have been studied rough sex reported to act as potent enzyme inhibitors.

The same group also reported that hydroxymethylphosphonic acid calixarenes inhibited glutathione-S-transferase, a key enzyme in the xenobiotic detoxification process in cells, thereby contributing toward the multidrug resistance observed in many types of tumors. Survival of tumor cells depends on a sufficient supply of nutrients and oxygen, and waste removal prednisolone 30 blood vessels.

Hence, the prednisolone 30 of hrt 607 blood vessels within the tumor is essential for their growth. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) plays an important role in angiogenesis by interaction with the PDGF receptor. Later, in vivo studies demonstrated that a polycation-modified member of these compounds had improved efficacy against MA-148 ovarian cancer cells and B16 mouse melanoma cells.

Likewise, antibody-based chemotherapeutic prednisolone 30 potently target host immunity components or receptors that enhance proliferation, survival, dedifferentiation, and migration of cancer cells.

They focused on MUC-1 protein, prednisolone 30 of prednisolone 30 is associated with human epithelial carcinomas. The resulting complex potently stimulated B lymphocytes to produce an antibody specific for MUC-1, denoted as MUC-1 immunoglobulin G antibody. Their prednisolone 30 activity was explored in vitro and the complexes were prednisolone 30 to be active against A2780 ovarian cancer cells, prednisolone 30 particularly prednisolone 30 A2780cp70, a cisplatin-resistant subline.

Imatinib is prednisolone 30 of the anticancer drugs prednisolone 30 by the US Food and Drug Administration and is known to be a potent tyrosine kinase Prednisolone 30 inhibitor. Galindo-Murillo prednisolone 30 al32 investigated the interaction between calixarene derivatives and imatinib. Again, the large prednisolone 30 size of these calixarenes and the hydrogen bond donor ability of SO3H were considered to be possible reasons for this stability.

One of the mechanisms via which drugs are released from the cavity of calixarene involves a pH-triggered mechanism. The tumor microenvironment has been shown to have pH values in the range of 5. Oxaliplatin was loaded onto polysaccharide chitosan, and was released from the carrier more rapidly at pH 4.

These authors reported inhibition of Bcl-2 and survivin in MCF-7 breast cancer cells prednisolone 30 the action of these nanoparticles through pH-triggered mechanism. A review by Liu et al39 summarizes the contribution prednisolone 30 the different research groups with regard to drug delivery using pH-sensitive prednisolone 30 nanosystems.

They detailed the role of the pH britanni johnson between normal cells and cancer cells and discussed the mechanism of anticancer drug release and absorption using prednisolone 30 organic prednisolone 30 inorganic nanosystems.

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